When you are streaming low latency video (<1 second glass-glass), FEC is a great way of coping with a little packet loss along the way.
In theory Pro-MPEG FEC can cope with upto 25% packet loss, but in practice it can struggle with 0.001% loss.
FEC works in a similar way to RAID, it sends parity data along with the real data, increasing the amount of data sent, but meaning you can recover if a packet goes AWOL.
We’ve found from much observation over the years that we sometimes suffer internet problems where a circuit stops transmitting for 10, 20, even 50ms – perhaps as routes or interfaces change in an ISP you have no control over. A 10mbit RTP stream sends 1 packet every millisecond, so this can mean 50 lost packets in a row, and the standard FEC matrix sizes can’t cope with more than 20 (even assumes all the parity packets get through).
If your encoder and decoder are relatively close to each other, nowadays you’d use RIST or SRT to cope with packet loss – you lose 100 packets, but you then ask for retransmits and get them back, assuming you have a high enough receive buffer for your round trip.
If you’re trying to do an interview down the line from Austraila and your studio is 350ms away in Europe, these protocols introduce unacceptable delay though — 5xrtt on top of the normal encode process would be nearly a 2 second delay, far beyond what’s acceptable.
OBEs have a “Duplicate Stream” option. It transmits every packet again, from the same source IP, to the same destination IP, just a little later. By setting a duplicate stream of 100ms, and a receive buffer of say 120ms, the stream will be immune to outages of . The nice thing about this is that it also works into other RTP based decoders which have a configurable receiver buffer, as they toss the duplicate packet, and just treat it as out-of-order.